Page 8 - GODR SR EN - GODR_v7-22.01
P. 8

Technical devices and influence on the emergency operations






     véhicules  A/DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENERGY COMMONLY USED

               We are used to distinguish different types on energy-propelled vehicles:

     les        •  « monocarburation vehicle » :they use a single source of energy ( GO / LPG / CNG / LNG)
                •   « Bi-carburetion vehicles » : they use 2 different types of energy (GAS/NGV or GAS/LPG for example)
     sur          •      «Hybrid vehicles»: they go at least 2 different energy transformers and at least 2 different disposals to keep the energy into batteries.
               Hybrid vehicles we often encounter are Electric Hybrid Vehicles (EHV).
     Généralités   Commonly used energies for vehicles are:













                        PETROLEUM BASED PRODUCTS               ELECTRICITY                  HYDROGEN
                   Liquid (Gasoline, Diesel…) / Gas (CNG, LPG)
               Stockage
               You may find Liquid Energy put into tanks (GAS/DIESEL), under pressure (LPG, CNG,  H2) or in high voltage battery pack (EV).


                                  Prior to any operation, Power Systems have to be neutralized



                                  Beware of any type of fire on EV or under pressured gas propelled vehicle in a closed area (parking lot, under-
                                  ground way…)


                                  Under pressure gas tanks have to be treated with care, in case of a possible tank rupture, but also if there is a
                                  simple gas leak or in case of a fire (overpressure / BLEVE).


               High voltage battery pack mainly is NiMH, Li-ion or LMP (Lithium Metal Polymer). If NiMH batteries do not raise particular problem, the
     GUIDE OPÉRATIONNEL DÉPARTEMENTAL DE RÉFÉRENCE / INTERVENTIONS D’URGENCE SUR LES VÉHICULES
               impact on the interventions for vehicle lights of the other used technologies can be important in particular in case of thermal racing of the battery.
               It should be noted however that an important calorie intake is necessary to obtain a thermal racing of batteries  (in particular for batteries LMP).
                                  Facing a thermal reaction under the battery pack, extinguishing operations may be hard (Li-ion) or quite impos-
                                  sible (LMP). Environmental protection is required with a high priority. Without fire service intervention, a battery
                                  pack may burn for 1 hour.


                                  Some constructors (RENAULT) install thermal fuses or « fireman access» on battery packs, in order to help extin-
                                  guishing operations, by introducing water directly into the batteries.




                                  In case of li-ion batteries,  projections of materials in fire are possible in case of thermal runaway, specially when
                                  the battery is separated from his casing.

















                                                                                          http://youtu.be/3J4HUz18ZSQ
    6
   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13